1 edition of Geologic conditions affecting safe bituminous coal mining in Pennsylvania found in the catalog.
Geologic conditions affecting safe bituminous coal mining in Pennsylvania
|Statement||compiled by Samuel I. Root.|
|Series||Information circular - Pennsylvania Geological Survey ; 84|
|Contributions||Root, Samuel I.|
|LC Classifications||QE157 .A2915 no. 84, TN805.P4 .A2915 no. 84|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||iii, 202 p. :|
|Number of Pages||202|
|LC Control Number||80621034|
Hot, steamy air and geological activity were conducive to forming coal from the millions of years of accumulated plant growth. The amount of water and carbon left behind in the coal and the amount of heat and pressure placed upon it within the earth helped determine the hardness and type of coal, not simply the geological age of the coal bed. The Avondale mine disaster in which miners were killed focused public attention on the unsafe conditions in the mines and caused Pennsylvania to enact the first mine safety laws. In , the first year of statistics, a total of miners were killed while producing 14 million tons of anthracite.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content and since the s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine is a 'pit', and. Inactive Coal Mine Subsidence. Coal mining in Colorado started in the ’s and is a continuing activity in many areas of Colorado. As of August , Federal and State law requires that potential surface subsidence be taken into account in mining plans. But prior to that time, the effect of mining on the surface was not fully considered.
Mining was, of course, extremely dangerous, but beginning in , Pennsylvania law required miners (workers at the coal face) to pass a safety examination and have two years’ prior experience as mine laborers — a law that probably enhanced safety and incidentally made it more difficult for coal operators to replace strikers. Bituminous Coal Losses and Mining Methods in Pennsylvania including Thickness, Character and Reserves of Coal on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bituminous Coal Losses and Mining Methods in Pennsylvania including Thickness, Character and Reserves of CoalManufacturer: Pennsylvania Geologic Survey.
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OCLC Number: Description: iii, pages: illustrations ; 26 cm. Contents: Geologic causes and possible preventions of roof fall in room-and-pillar coal mines / Bion H. Kent --Channel sandstones in coal / Gary B. Glass --Roof rock structures and related roof support problems in the Pittsburgh coalbed of southwestern Pennsylvania / Noel N.
Moebs --Geologic factors causing roof. OCLC Number: Description: iii, pages: illustrations ; 26 cm. Contents: Geologic causes and possible preventions of roof fall in room-and-pillar coal mines / B.H.
Kent --Channel sandstones in coal / G.B. Glass --Roof rock structures and related roof support problems in the Pittsburgh coalbed of southwestern Pennsylvania / N.N. Moebs --Geologic factors causing roof instability and. As coal mining methods and activities have changed over the years, the effects on the geologic conditions have also changed.
Underground operations have grown from small family mines to obtain house coal for heating to large, commercial operations, and the respective mining methods have changed from narrow, hand-cut tunnels, through room-and-pillar mines with pillars left in the mines to.
There are two types of coal found in Pennsylvania: anthracite (the “hard coal” found in Northeastern Pennsylvania below the Allegheny Ridge southwest to Harrisburg; also called “stone coal”, “rock coal” in the s) and bituminous (“soft coal”, found west of the Allegheny Front escarpment).Anthracite coal is a natural mineral with a high carbon and energy content that gives.
The Bituminous coal mine maps of Pennsylvania were created by the Works Progress Administration from Workers transcribed information about the extent of underground bituminous coal mines on to these maps, as well as locations of oil and gas wells.
These maps are based on minute topographic quadrangles, divided into nine sections. The largest number of mine sites are found in Clearfield, Somerset, and Indiana counties. As of the bituminous region produced a total of 50, tons of coal, w, of those tons produced from underground mining.
Coal Mining Drainage Prediction and Pollution Prevention in PA (online book, ) (PDF). GEOLOGY OF THE PENNSYLVANIA COAL REGIONS Roger J. Hornberger, Caroline M. Loop, Keith B. Brady, Nathan A. Houtz The geology of the Anthracite and Bituminous Coal Regions of Pennsylvania is fundamental to most of the contents of this book.
Since most of the coal ash placement sites described in this book are in the anthracite coal fields, the. BIBUOGRAPHIES OF PENNSYLVANIA GEOLOGY For a more comprehensive, annotated listing of publications dealing with Pennsylvania geology throughincluding journal articles and nongovernmental publications, please refer to the following General Geology Reports published by the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey: G 34, G 42, G 61, and G.
Coal mining - Coal mining - Coal deposits: In geologic terms, coal is a sedimentary rock containing a mixture of constituents, mostly of vegetal origin. Vegetal matter is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and some inorganic mineral elements.
When this material decays under water, in the absence of oxygen, the carbon content increases. These 15 Rare Photos Show Pennsylvania’s Coal Mining History Like Never Before. Pennsylvania’s rich coal mining history dates back centuries to the late s and boomed between and After the boom, the industry began a steady decline that continues to the present day.
By analyzing the geological exploration data and actually monitoring gas data of the Jiangjiahe coal mine in Bin-chang mine area, preliminary summarized geological conditions affecting the mine high gas distribution, such as sealing effect of the coal seam roof and floor mudstones, a high-pressure zone of the fold axis and climbs stress concentration sections, and mining area have not.
Published since the s this report contains production statistics, mine names, locations, owner information, and accident statistics. Prior to the mids the reports for anthracite and bituminous coal were produced by separate agencies; therefore early reports for bituminous coal are available as part III "Industrial Statistics" of the Annual Report of the Bureau of.
Statistics for the First Bituminous Coal District of Pennsylvania were: total amount of coal shipped: 9, tons; coal mines operating in ; in ; 93 reported accidents; 32 fatal.
Average number of miners employed in each mine of the first district, Average amount of coal mined by each mine, tons. coal:bed of the Monongahela Fo•rmation, which has been largely mined out.
Total original reserves of high-volatile bituminous coal in beds thicker than 14 inches are estimated to be 2, million short tons, of which 2, million tons are remaining reserves. INTRODUCTION Beaver County, Pa., is a part of one of the major coal fields in the.
If not, please contact the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection at [email protected] to inquire how to obtain a copy of the mine map image. Please include the following in.
Geology. Geology is the study of Earth -- the materials that make it up, the processes that act on those materials, and the history of the planet and its life forms. The rocks under a specific area have a significant impact on how that land can best be used.
Bureau of District Mining Operations. Responsible for permitting and inspection of mine sites for a given region and/or specific mining type. There are 6 individual District Mining Offices (DMOs) in Pennsylvania located to best serve the needs of the industry and citizens.
Epermitting info Bureau of Mining Programs. the nature, location and extent of coal resources in a particular situation, such as a coal mining lease or a coal-bearing sedimentary basin, and to identify the geological factors that may affect its economic, safe and environmentally-acceptable mining and use.
Depending on the context, the immediate aim of a coal exploration program may be to. Mining in Pennsylvania was a well regulated industry after the Avondale mine disaster in Details of mining accidents, fatal and nonfatal, can be found in the volumes of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Mine Inspector ations began in and continues today; however, the reports are only genealogically useful until the ’s.
Coal is widely distributed around the world and the United States has approximately 21 percent of the world's coal resources (EIA, ). The coal industry in the United States is mature, tracing its origin to the first commercial exploitation of coal in the Manakin area, near Richmond, Virginia, in Bymost of the colonies knew about the existence of coal fields within their.
Duringthe Pennsylvania Geological Survey began an investi-gation to determine more accurately the quantity and quality of Pennsylvania's bituminous coal resources.
The original work was done by John F. Reese, with some later revision by James P. Sisler. The Reese and Sisler report was published in and stated that the.
Pennsylvania has developed new standards, released in and implemented into help protect the commonwealth?s valuable streams from the detrimental effects of subsidence. These standards are aimed at eliminating environmental problems and will therefore help to make underground bituminous coal mining more sustainable.The Lower Kittanning coalbed in Cambria County, Pa., has a long mining history and is currently being explored to define deeper reserves.
As these deeper reserves are explored, geologic factors that affect mining in unmined coal need to be examined to aid in mine planning.
With the accumulation of.